Friday, May 22, 2020
In a cast of over 30 characters, there are only two women. This is a statement describing the world renown play The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. These two female characters are Calpurnia, the wife of Julius Ceasar, and Portia, the wife of Marcus Brutus. Other than these two women, the cast is composed entirely of male characters. In a work of literature so populated by men, one may ask why Shakespeare takes the time to include any women at all. However, after further reflection, it is clear to see the reason as to why they are included. Upon including Calpurnia and Portia in The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare deepens our understanding of their husbands, highlights the social values of the time, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Asking this of Mark Antony displays clearly that Caesar believes Calpurnia to be at fault for them not, yet having any children. This shows that the men of Rome thought highly of themselves in every way. They were full of pri de and saw no flaws within themselves. With CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s actions in CalpurniaÃ¢â¬â¢s presence we see the gentler, slightly less arrogant side to his personality. Also in having PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s presence, we see the more compassionate side of Brutus, her husband. We are shown CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s gentler, less arrogant behavior when Calpurnia pleaded with Caesar that he not leave home that day, a request made due to her suspicions sparked by the soothsayerÃ¢â¬â¢s warning to beware the Ides of March. Caesar dismisses her feeling confident that the SoothsayerÃ¢â¬â¢s words were unimportant. However she continues in her attempts to convince him. Ã¢â¬Å"Mark Antony shall say I am not well,/ And for thy humor I will stay at homeÃ¢â¬ (cite). Then, although he sees staying home on this day as a sign of cowardice, Caesar chooses to stay home. Although shortly after, Caesar reverts to his original plan, the fact remains true that for at least a moment, Caesar had made the less arrogant choice. Making this choice showed Caesa r is capable of changing his arrogant way of thinking under certain circumstances.In having Portia, BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, we see a new characteristic in Brutus as well.After PortiaÃ¢â¬â¢s death Brutus says to Cassius, Ã¢â¬Å"No man bearsShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Julius Caesar 1008 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJulius Caesar Assignment Tess Macintyre IGCSE English Literature Discuss the contribution made by the two women, Portia and Calpurnia, to the play as a whole. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s drama Julius Caesar, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s numerous characters include just two women; Calpurnia and Portia; the wives of Julius Caesar and Marcus Brutus respectively. Though the parts are small, they each make important contributions to the play as a whole. Both women in Julius Caesar exist only in the context of their relationshipsRead MoreThe Rise Of The Roman Empire1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexpectations from. Its founders chose to steal women from neighboring villages, in order to grow its population. These aggressive and expansionary ideologies remained within the personalities of every Roman, living inside the great empire 755 years later. And yet despite its vast military presence and growing cities and towns, the Roman Empire and its capital still succumbed to a barbarian takeover. This was widely regarded as one of the greatest tragedies in ancient history, and to this day it remainsRead MoreThe Theme of Julius Caesar Essay2961 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe Theme of Julius Caesar How suitably is the theme of the supernatural depicted in the play Ã¢â¬ËJulius CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢? William Shakespeare was one of the most influential playwrights, is known today for his plays such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, A Midsummer Nights Dream and many other interesting and different plays. We in the 21st century enjoy ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays for a variety of reasons. His plays have different themes like love, ambition, pride, friendship, supernaturalRead MoreEssay on Opera3072 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesbeen altered at puberty to preserve and develop their soprano and alto vocal range. In the late 1600s, opera became extravagant, with magnificent scenery and huge casts of people. Arias were written into plots, and the dramas demanded more acting. Women were trained to sing the female roles. Some composers began writing full length comic operas. Before 1750, comic operas were short, funny little scenes performed for audiences as entertainment between the acts of serious opera. English 18th-centuryRead MoreGreek Influence on the Modern Day Theater2816 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesit evolved from religious groups in ancient Greece. There were also many great playwrights, such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, who opened the doors to a world of art. Even the construction of a play and the major types of plays, such as tragedy and comedy, are still used to this day. The way the characters or actors and costume evolved from such a simple plan to a extremely difficult and complicated design. Finally the influence Greek theater has had on the modern day and how it continue sRead MoreQuestion and Correct Answer7042 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pagesand Enkidu represent?Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: | Ã Ã Nature versus civilization | Correct Answer: | Ã Ã Nature versus civilization | | | | | Ã¯â · Question 4 2 out of 2 points | | | What is the Persian Zoroasters greatest contribution to religious thought?Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: | Ã Ã The emphasis on free will | Correct Answer: | Ã Ã The emphasis on free will | | | | | Ã¯â · Question 5 2 out of 2 points | | | Why is the Epic of Gilgamesh a first in knownRead MoreLiterature and Language10588 Words Ã |Ã 43 Pagesfigurative use of language is TROPE, which refers to language used in a figurative way for a rhetorical purpose. For example, ex. 9-4 Friends, Romans and Contrymen, lend me your ears Ã¢â¬ ¦ This is from Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢ s speech in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢ s Julius Caesar. Here lend me your ears is a trope, used figuratively for rhetorical ends in order to make more impact than a literal variation such as listen to me for a moment .We do not interpret the line literally as a wish to borrow the flesh-and-blood earsRead MoreThe Studio System Essay14396 Words Ã |Ã 58 Pageswas largely due to the introduction of the producer, or studio syste Cinema is a collaborative art so it is difficult to determine the influence of one particular person on a film. The only way to truly judge a single persons contribution to film is to look at their entire filmography, in that way you can begin to distinguish patterns that can be identified with individuals. With this in mind, it is fair to say that the art director has more influence on a given filmRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pageshemisphere. He was integral in causing the Western hemisphere to now have its long history of European culture. He brought new technology and new religion that spread throughout the hemisphere. He sent attack dogs to maul naked Indians, seized Caribbean women as sex slaves, and disemboweled other natives who resisted conquest. Many were hanged, some were burned alive. He chopped off the hands of thousands who were slow in producing the gold he wanted. Many Arawak Indians responded by committing a seriesRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 Pagesbuilding on a strong tradition of really useful relationships between the practical and academic spheres in accounting, I sense that the two worlds have less and less to do with one another. It is therefore ever more important to reflect on the contributions which Michael Bromwich has made. He played an important role in the diffusion of modern practices of capital investment appraisal in the United Kingdom. He has been constantly open to the insights which advances in economic theory can provide into
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Adolescents are involved in the difficult task of identifying themselves and making important life decisions. (Smits, Soenens, Vansteenkiste, Luyckx, Goossens, 2010). The support from parents seems to greatly assist adolescents in their identity formation process. Two theories that have been used in research to examine adolescent identity are the psychosocial development of adolescents and BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s social learning theory. Psychosocial development as theorized by Erikson has eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood (Kail Cavanaugh, 2010). Adolescents fall into stage five, Identity vs. Role Confusion, in which the question of Ã¢â¬Å"Who am IÃ¢â¬ is trying to be answered. In trying toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Second, Baumrind assumes that normal parenting revolves around issues of control. Although parents may differ in how they try to control or socialize their children and the extent to which they do so, it is assumed that the primary role of all parents is to influence, teach, and control their children. Authoritarian parenting combines high control with little warmth. Authoritative parenting combines a fair degree of parental control with being warm and responsive to children. Permissive parenting offers warmth and caring but little parental control. Uninvolved parenting provides neither warmth nor control. Research exploring the relationship between parenting and adolescent adjustment shows consistently that all the characteristics of an authoritative parenting style are associated with positive outcomes among teenagers (Lee, Daniels, Kissinger, 2006). Subsequent research has found that adolescents who considered their parents to be authoritative had higher levels of psychological competence and lower levels of psychological and behavioral dysfunction in comparison to adolescents who perceived their parents as neglectful (Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter, Keehan, 2007). Students who believe they have authoritarian parents do well with obedience and conformity to adult standards; however, they show relatively poor self-conceptions. Adolescents withShow MoreRelatedBan Increasing Independence With Limits1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAllow Increasing Independence with Limits Much research shows that adolescents do best when parents set reasonable, age-appropriate rules and expectations, and follow through with reasonable consequences for breaking rules (Simpson, 2001). Clearly stated rules and predictable consequences for breaking rules are especially important in the area of risky behavior. To the extent that it has been tested among AI youth the principle still applies. For example, Lonczak et al. (2007) found that more limitRead MoreEffective Parenting : A Relationship Between Caregivers And The One Who Is Being Cared Essay1885 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesParenting usually occurs between the different generations or different birth cohorts at the same generation which is the subsystem within the family, for example, parents and child, grandparents and child, sibling (Lerner, Noh Wilson, 1998). Sometimes, when childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s parents or grandparents are missing, uncle(s), aunt(s), or even neighbor(s) may take the responsibility of parenting. Usually it takes the form of the elder one taking care of the younger one. Parenting is a two-way relationshipRead MoreMoral Development During Adolescence Essay8689 Words Ã |Ã 35 PagesDeterminants Of Moral Development In Curbing AdolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Moral Decay. Surname: Zondo Initials: G. L. Student number: 43097855 Examination period: October/November 2015 1 The Determinants Of Moral Development In Curbing AdolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Moral Decay. Abstract The study explored the determinants of moral development in curbing adolescentsÃ¢â¬â¢ moral decay. These determinants included identity development, gender, parental (mother) relationship with adolescent, and ethical and moral values. A mixed-modelRead MoreThemes Of Development : Prenatal6705 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesstudy of low birth weight babies in Aceh Province, Indonesia, and discovered that cultural practices did influence the neonatal care and medical decisions made by mothers, thus affecting neonatal health, development, and survival. The stress that the mother experiences during pregnancy can affect the health of the unborn child. While studies are still being conducted to more fully understand the effects of stress hormones on the fetus, Professor Megan Holmes (as quoted byÃ the British NeuroscienceRead MoreAcademic Motivation : Mediating Variable between Parenting Style and Academic Achievement3869 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesreinforcing, caring, and showing warmth to their children and these differences are called Parenting Styles. Therefore, this study will be useful and informative for parents on how to raise their child and for the future parents to have an idea and awareness of the different approaches that most children would prefer. Literature Review Parenting Style can be defined as the integration of the two elements of parenting: Responsiveness/Warmth and Demandingness (Baumrind, 1991). Responsiveness is the extentRead MoreAdolescent Self And Socio Emotional Development2699 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesAssignment one, Adolescent Self and Socio-emotional Development. A. Identify and discuss 3-5 key socio-emotional issues illustrated in the mid-adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait. B. Outline the trends that occur in each of the chosen areas of socio-emotional development as a typical high school student moves from early adolescence (e.g. Year 7/8) to mid-adolescence (Year 11/12). C.Consider and discuss how a high school teacher can use evidence-based practice to accommodate the socio-emotional needs of adolescent studentsRead MoreCharacter analysis of Territory by David Leavitt2930 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesaccept her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s homosexual identity and his on-going struggle with internalized homophobia. The story opens with twenty-three year old Neil visiting his mother, Mrs. Campbell, at his childhood home. As they prepare for the first arrival of NeilÃ¢â¬â¢s lover, Wayne, the anticipation triggers anxieties both Neil, causing him to have painful flashbacks of the past. As these images reveal, Neil has lived with feelings of shame, embarrassment and guilt over his sexual identity, as well as an exposure to theRead MoreThesis, Term Paper, Essay, Research Paper21993 Words Ã |Ã 88 PagesCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT Adolescent pregnancy has long been a worldwide social and educational concern for the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Many countries continue to experience high incidence of teenage pregnancy despite the intervention strategies that have been put in place. In 1990 approximately 530,000 teenagers in the United States became pregnant, 51% of whom gave birth (Coley Chase-Lansdale, 1998). Available literature suggests that fertilityRead MoreBusiness Psychology: Different Parenting Styles6933 Words Ã |Ã 28 PagesAbstract This research investigated the affect parenting styles have on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the workplace. Parenting styles play a major role in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s future performance. How parents raise their kids affects the kids for the rest of their lives. As with any aspect of psychology there is no right or wrong way about it. However, each parenting style has its pros and cons and this is why I have chosen this topic. To find out how different parenting styles affect the performance of the child in theRead More The Psychological Factors Involved in Child Abuse Essay3416 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesmultidimensional and interactive factors that relate to its origins and effects upon a childs developing capacities and which may act as a catalyst to broader, longer-term implications for adulthood. Such maltreatment may be of a sexual, physical, emotional or neglectful nature, each form holding a proportion of shared and abuse-specific psychological considerations (Mash Wolfe, 2005). Certainly in terms of the effects / impairments of abuse, developmental factors have been identified
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(75) " It is dimensionally stable and strongest sheet material to weight ratio \." A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES CONTENTS |Sl. No. |Title |Page No. We will write a custom essay sample on A Study on Job Satisfaction of Employee or any similar topic only for you Order Now | |1. Introduction |1 Ã¢â¬â 5 | | | |Statement of the Problem |1 | | | |Objectives of the Study |1 | | | |Scope and Significance of the Study |2 | | | |Research Methodology |2 | | | |Limitations of the Study |4 | | | |Chapteraisation |4 | |2. Profiles |6 Ã¢â¬â 17 | | | |Industry profile |6 | | | |Company profile |8 | | | |Product profile |13 | |3. |Theoretical Framework |18 Ã¢â¬â 28 | |4. |Analysis and Interpretation |29 Ã¢â¬â 40 | |5. |Findings and Recommendations |41 Ã¢â¬â 42 | |6. Summary |43 | | |Bibliography | | | |Appendix | | LIST OF TABLES |Table |Description |Page No. | | | | | |4. 1 |Score of Various Attributes |30 | |4. 2 |Score of Various Attributes |31 | |4. |Score of Various Attributes |32 | |4. 4 |Score of Various Attributes |33 | |4. 5 |Gender of Respondents |34 | |4. 6 |Educational Qualification |35 | |4. 7 |Experience of the Respondents |36 | |4. 8 |Age of the Respondents |37 | |4. |Marital Status of the Respondents |38 | | | | | LIST O F FIGURES |Figure |Description |Page No. | | | | | |4. 1 |Score of Various Attributes |30 | |4. 2 |Score of Various Attributes |31 | |4. 3 |Score of Various Attributes 32 | |4. 4 |Score of Various Attributes |33 | |4. 5 |Gender of Respondents |34 | |4. 6 |Educational Qualification |35 | |4. 7 |Experience of the Respondents |36 | |4. 8 |Age of the Respondents |37 | |4. |Marital Status of the Respondents |38 | | | | | Chapter I Introduction Introduction ? Statement of the problem ? Objectives of the Study ? Scope and Significance of the Study ? Research Methodology ? Limitation of the Study ? Chapterisation Chapter III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Chapter IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Chapter V SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chapter VI SUMMARY APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY Chapter II PROFILES Industry Profile ? Company Profile ? Product Profile INTRODUCTION A study was conducted at, WESTERN INDIA PLYWOODS, VALAPATTANAM, the largest integrated wood processing complex in the country on Job Satisfaction of the employees. Job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their work. Job satisfaction is an affective attitude Ã¢â¬â a feeling of relative like or dislike toward something. Job satisfaction typically refers to the attitudes of a single employee. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Western India Plywoods has been incurring losses in the last few years. Health, knowledge, skill level etc. f employees are significant factors that can influence the fate of an organization. The causes of business failure may be internal and external, mostly by people related issues. This study attempts at finding the current level of job satisfaction of employees at Western India Plywoods and what it means for its turnaround. OBJECTIV ES OF THE STUDY Main Objective The main objective is to study the satisfaction level of workers with respect to various factors. Sub-Objectives ? To study the employee perception about personnel policies. ? To identify ways of improving job satisfaction, if possible. SCOPE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study is limited to the workers at the WESTERN INDIA PLYWOODS. It is conducted with the objective of finding various factors affecting the job satisfaction of workers in the company. This study in its practical and theoretical sense will help the management in assessing the satisfaction level of the workers. Job satisfaction of the employees is the major concern of every organization. Dissatisfied employees is a major threat to the company causing a decline in every functions of the company. So the study on the job satisfaction of the employees gains more importance and significance in the sense that it affects productivity and hence the existence of the company. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design . The study conducted at WESTERN INDIA PLYWOODS was descriptive in nature. It aims at portraying accurately the characteristics of a group or situation. Sampling Design The technique adopted for the sampling is convenient sampling . Sample Size and population The workers of Western India Plywoods constituted the population for the study. It has 900 permanent workers. The sample selected for the study is limited to 50 for convenience. Study Variables The following variables were selected for the study ? Gender of respondents ? Age of respondents ? Educational qualification ? Experience of employees ? Time spent with family ? Wage level ? Opinion about promotion policy, job security, recognition, work place relationship, etc was also included. Methods of Data Collection Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected from the workers by means of Questionnaire and the secondary data were compiled from past records, journals and the Internet. Tools of Data Collection Questionnaire was prepared to collect the relevant data. Major variables such as promotional factors, motivational factors, personal factors and environmental factors were considered while preparing questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared after an initial discussion with a few employees, HR manager, trade union representatives etc. For the questionnaire, closed -end questions were used. Data Analysis and Interpretation The data analysis and presentation were done using mean, chi-square test, frequency tables, bar charts and pie-diagram. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ? Chances of bias from the respondents cannot be neglected. ? Qualitative study poses a problem of proper articulation of feelings and emotions. In an organizational context superior behaviour may also affect quality of responses. CHAPTERISATION Chapter I Introduction deals with Ã¢â¬Å"introduction to the studyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Statement of the ProblemÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Objectives of the StudyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Scope and Significance of the StudyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Research MethodologyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Limitation of the StudyÃ¢â¬ . Chapter II Profile deals with Ã¢â¬Å"Industry ProfileÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Company ProfileÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"product profile. Chapter III, Ã¢â¬Å"Theoretical FrameworkÃ¢â¬ of job satisfaction Chapter IV, Analysis and Interpretation deals with the analysis and interpretation of the data collected from the respondents. Chapter V Summary, Findings and Recommendations deals with findings from the analysis and the suggestions based on the findings. CONCLUSION This chapter we presented the problem, objectives, scope and significance of the study. The research methodology and limitation of the study were also mentioned . The next chapter deals with profile of the company, its products and markets. INDUSTRY PROFILE INTRODUCTION According to archeologist, manÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural progress can be traced in the art of wood veneering. Relics, found in Egypt and Chinese tombs dating from 2002 BC indicate that veneering combines art and science. The 14th century witnessed the revival of art and brought to veneering a new figure and beauty. Today modern machinery and mass production technique produce veneers that are used to build nearly 80% of furniture. PLYWOOD INDUSTRY The necessity of making plywood arises out of the inherent defect in wood plywood in an engineered wood panel . made from thin layer of wood veneers assembled with grain direction of adjacent veneer as right angled to each other with layers of synthetic resins, adhesive and pressed under high heat and pressure, thus imparting a great degree of strength. It is dimensionally stable and strongest sheet material to weight ratio . It is technically designed to be strong and stiff enough to safely replace more than three times thick solid timber for the same use. It appears, plywood industry has become an innocent victim of gross misconception. The unfounded impression that this industry is exerting pressure on our natural resources is factually incorrect. It is in total disagreed to its excellent role as an economic substitute of solid wood and thus prevention of natural forest and ecology. Strangely enough the government desires that the use of aluminium, steel and plastic as substitute of solid wood in buildings may be encouraged. Similarly other substitute like wood based board and medium densified fiber board are claiming their superiority over plywood in terms of its functional use and ecology conservation role. PRODUCT PROFILE The company produces traditional general-purpose commercial and decorative plywood. In addition to that the company proudly presents an exciting range of specially plywood panels and materials for specific applications. 1. WESIND FIRE RETARDANT PLYWOOD This plywood is ideal for residential and non-residential building, transportation vehicles etc. This plywood meets the British Standards Specification and has been certified by the British Standard Institute. 2. WESTIND FIRE RETARDANT PLYWOOD Experts in the aviation field have acclaimed this extra ordinary product of the Company for its unparalleled quality. This product has earned the recognition of the Directorate of Civil Aviation, Government of India, on its introduction itself. 3. WESTIND MARINE PLYWOOD Made of special category timber, this highly durable plywood ensures smooth sailing of vessels in the harsh marine environment. 4. WESTIND RESIN COATED PLYWOOD BWR plywood is coated with a special grade phenolic resin coated plywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s impart a superior finish to the concrete surface and avoid the tedious and expensive plastering operation. 5. WESTIND FLOORING BOARDS These boards have been developed using veneer hard board laminates. The boards have been given a social water repellent treatment and the unique is that they can be cut to nay size to suit the requirement of the floor area. It can be directly laid on a raw concrete floor by applying a thin coat of suitable adhesive. 6. WESTED FURNITURE WESTERN INDIA PLYWOOD specializes in exquisite and molded plywood furniture, which will exceed your expectations regarding strength and durability. WESTIND furniture is manufactured utilizing the finest building material available in the market. It is a matter of pride to WIP that the loose furniture in the Leela Goa project was entirely supplied by the company. It is made with a judicious blend of solid timber and composite panels to optimise strength and cost. The company adopts ultra modern technology to give the products of lasting value and elegance. 7. WESTED SUPTER BLOCK BOARDS Bonded with phenolic resing to produce by a special process with extra core. This product is free from warping and surface undulation. It is a superior to conventional block board and particle board. Its more stable than conventional block boards and its nailing and screw holding properties are superb. 8. WESTING COMPREG Densified and super toughened wood panel products made from veneers impregnated with synthetic resin adhesive and pressed at elevated temperatures and pressures. ? WIPWOOD Ã¢â¬â for textile and jute mill looms. ? WIPROC Ã¢â¬â for press forming tools in sheet metal and Aeronautical industries. WIPLAC-panels for rail coach furnishing. ? WIPBEAR-for rolls bearing application ? WIP FILTER PLATES AND FRAME WORKS Ã¢â¬â for filtration in Chemical industries. ? WIPCHECK-compressed floor board for Automobile, industrial and rail coach furnishin g. ? WIPCOM-for high and low voltage insulation in air or in an oil bath. COMPREG MOULED CHAIR SEATS Ã¢â¬â for EMU rail coaches, Auditorium, Theatres and restaurants. The introduction of WIPLAC and a host of other innovative products underlie the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to the industry and provide reason for the luminous reputation in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s larges integrated wood product company enjoys in domestic and international markets. In 1978, WIP set up a plant for manufacturing Di-ally phthalate molding powder, a thermo set which had to be imported with them. Significantly, the technology was developed in house with support from Shree Ram Institute of Industrial research, Delhi. In 1989, the Company put up a pre-finishing plant for direct printing wood grains and plain colours onto hard boards and plywood using radiation curved surface finishes. The pre-finishing plant is the only one of its kind in the country and one of the few in the world. All the raw materials and processes employed in the plant are 100% Eco-Friendly. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are exported to quality conscious markets around the world. MARKETS The Company has been passing through acute problems for sourcing good raw materials, the price of which increases almost on a daily basis. The main raw material for the company, i. e. , timber, is being exported and here again the company has no control over the price, which varies from shipment to shipment. The company has also no control over the levies being made by Central State Government. Also, the steep increase in cost of imported raw materials, the high power tariff and the ever increasing cost of Furnace oil and other petroleum products collectively put together rendered the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products uncompetitive in the market. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY The energy conservation measures taken are as follows: Installed variable frequency drives for mating conveyors in No: II Hard board line to eliminate components like brakes, clutches, V-belts and inching motors. By retaining the existing motors, considerable power saving has been achieved. Optimized cooling tower operation by retrofitting and introduction of energy savers in cooling fans Installed level monitoring, closed loop control system for white water chest, and achieved optimisation in white water usage. Introduced automatic Delta Star running system for partial loaded motors in plywood and hardwood plants. The company has also achieved 100% utilization of source raw materials due to its integrated production system. Therefore, it would be apt to call the Western India PlywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Ltd. Ã¢â¬Å"the company with a conscience. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION In this chapter theoretical aspect of job satisfaction is recorded. Job satisfaction reflects the extent to which people find gratification or fulfillment in their work. Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological and environmental factors that make a person to admit, I am happy at my job. Extensive Research on job satisfaction shows that personal factors such as individualÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and aspirations determine his attitude, along with group and organizational factors such as relationship with co-workers and supervisors, working conditions, work policies, and compensation. DEFINITION We can define job satisfaction as involving cognitive, affective and evaluating reactions or attitudes and states it is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s job or job experience. Job satisfaction is a result of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. Through the years five job dimensions have been identified to represent the most important characteristics of a job about which employees have affective responses. These are: ? The work itself: The extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning and the chance to accept responsibility. Pay: The amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable that of others in the organization. ? Promotional opportunities. The chances for advancement in the organization. ? Supervision: The abilities of the supervisor to provide technical as sistance and behavioral support. ? Co-workers: the degree to which fellow workers are technically proficient and socially supportive. There are number of factors that influence job satisfaction. However the main factors are: I. PROMOTIONAL FACTORS Promotional opportunities seem to have a varying effect on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take a number of different forms and have a variety of accompanying rewards. For example, individuals who are promoted on the basis of seniority often experience job satisfaction but not as much as those who are promoted on the basis of performance. A promotion is the transfer of an employee to a job which pays more money or one that carries same preferred status. A promotion may be defined as an upward advancement of an employee in an organization to another job, which commands better pay/wages, better status/prestige, and higher opportunities/challenges, responsibility, and authority, better working environment, hours of work and facilities, and a higher rank. A promotion is a vertical move in the rank and responsibility. Involved in a promotion may be some measure of skill; and responsibility. Promotions are usually given: ? To put the worker in a position where he will be of greater value to the company and where he may derive increased personal satisfaction and income from the work; ? To recognize an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and reward him for his work so that he may have an incentive to forge ahead. Employees will have little motivation if better jobs are reserved for outsiders. ? To increase an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational effectiveness; ? To promote job satisfaction among the employees and give them an opportunity for unbroken, continuous service; ? To build up morale, loyalty, and a sense of belonging on the part of the employees when it is brought home to them that they would be promoted if they deserve it; ? To attract suitable and competent workers for the organization. II. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS There is no doubt that motivation is the key to the promotion of proper good human relations. The term Ã¢â¬Å"motivationÃ¢â¬ was originally derived from the Latin word movere, which means Ã¢â¬Å"to moveÃ¢â¬ . We can define motivation as an inner state that energises, activates, or moves (hence Ã¢â¬ËmotivationÃ¢â¬â¢), and that directs or channels behavior towards goals. Thus motivation is a general term that applies to the entire class of energy, drive, tension and similar forces. The studies can be classified under two groups, on the basis of convenience and simplifications, viz. , traditional theories, and modern theories. The traditional theories are based on mostly the Ã¢â¬Å"human relations approachÃ¢â¬ in management, with little attention to psychological processes that occur. This approach was based upon three simple assumptions: ? Personnel primarily are economically motivated and secondarily desire security and good working conditions. ? Provision of the above rewards to personnel will have a positive effect on the morale. There is a positive correlation between morale and productivity. III. PERSONAL FACTORS Personal factors comprises name, age, sex, marital status, experience, spending time with the family are the personal factors affecting the level of job satisfaction. Age: The relationship between age and job satisfaction could be complex generally one would expect that as the person gets older greater would be his job satisfaction level because of the experience and the case with which he would he will be able to perform his work Education: The relation between job satisfaction and education is based on how his educational qualification helps him to meet the job requirements and how he is able to utilize to earn additional promotion or a fare salary. However it is reasonable to assume that the more educated would be more frustrated. Years of experience: The relation between job satisfaction and years of experience is such that a new employee would be more satisfied with his job because of the enthusiasm of the work but these gradually decrease and increases when he reaches the stage of retirement as there is no other alternative opportunity available to him IV. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Interpersonal relationship with supervisor-There seems to be two dimensions of supervisory style that affect job satisfaction. One is employee centeredness, which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes a personal interest and cares about the employee. It commonly is manifested in ways such as checking to see how well the employee is doing. The other dimension is participation or influence, as illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. In most cases, this approach leads to higher job satisfaction. A participative climate created by the supervisor has a more substantial effect on workerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction Interpersonal relation with work groups will have an effect on job satisfaction. Friendly, co-operative co-workers or team members are a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The work group especially a Ã¢â¬Å"tightÃ¢â¬ team, serves as a source of support, comfort, advice and assistance to the individual members. A Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ work group or effective team makes the job more enjoyable. However, this factor is not job satisfaction. On the other hand, if the reverse condition exists the people are difficult to get along with this factor may have a negative effect on job satisfaction. Working conditions have a modest effect on job satisfaction. If the working conditions are good (clean, attractive surroundings for instance), the personnel will find it easier to carry out their jobs. If the working conditions are poor (hot, noisy surroundings for example), personnel will find it more difficult to get things done. In other words, the effect of working conditions on job satisfaction is similar to that of the work group; there may or may not be a job satisfaction problem. HertzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation and hygiene factors are relevant in job satisfaction. If the workers get adequate opportunity to hear and to be heard by the top management it can be a source of job satisfaction. This observation has been subscribed by Vroom while he holds that there exists a relationship between job satisfaction and opportunity for self-express. [pic] A MODEL OF JOB SATISFACTION The model of job satisfaction is presented below: EXPECTATIONS ACTUAL ABOUT JOBSCONDITIONS DISCREPANCIES PAYPAY WORK ITSELFWORK ITSELF PROMOTIONSPROMOTIONS COWORKERSCOWORKERS WORKING CONDITIONSWORKING CONDITIONS SUPER VISORSSUPER VISORS EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION Basically, job satisfaction is determined by the Ã¢â¬ËdiscrepancyÃ¢â¬â¢ between what individuals expect to get out of their jobs and what the job actually offers. A person will be dissatisfied if there is less than the desire amount of job characteristics in the job. For instance if a person expects to be promoted in six month and then is not, the person will be dissatisfied. A person will be satisfied if there is no discrepancy between decide and actual conditions. If it is more than the employee expected of some job factor and the excess is beneficial (e. g. a large bonus, faster promotion) then the person will be very highly satisfied. Job Satisfaction And Productivity Historically the concept of human relations assumed that high job satisfaction led to high productivity but later research indicated that this was an incorrect assumption. Satisfied workers turned out be either high producers or low producers only on average producers. The satisfaction-productivity relationship appeared to quite complex being influenced by various intermediate factors such as rewards than an employee receives. The question has often risen whether job satisfaction leads to performance of performance leads to job satisfaction. Lawler and Porter have developed a model that suggests that productivity leads to satisfaction. According to them, performance leads to reward and if these are perceived to equitable employee, satisfaction is the result. The assumption, which seems most realistic, is that satisfaction and productivity are in a circular relationship in which each affects the other. From the various studies a general relationship emerges between job satisfaction and productivity as shown in figure Relationship between Job satisfaction and Productivity [pic] Here in X, Y graph where X = Productivity and Y = Job satisfaction Line A = High Job satisfaction and Less Productivity Line B = High Job satisfaction and High productivity Lind C = High productivity and less job satisfaction. Here Ã¢â¬Ëline CÃ¢â¬â¢ of chart shows the conditions of high productivity and low job satisfaction which can be occur when the supervisors push the production through techniques of scientific management such as methods study, time study and close supervision. C. B MAMORIA Ã¢â¬â PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Ã¢â¬ËLine AÃ¢â¬â¢ represents a condition which believes that satisfied workers are the best workers and try to keep workers happy regardless of the affects on organizational goals. In this condition, the worker may derive such job satisfaction, but work may be done. One supervisor describes this condition, as Ã¢â¬Å"my workers due so happy that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like my workingÃ¢â¬ . The middle Ã¢â¬Ëline BÃ¢â¬â¢ appears to be the most desirable agreement-where high satisfaction and high productivity are combined together CONCLUSION In this chapter the theoretical aspects of job satisfaction were discussed. Major variables such as promotional factors, motivational factors, personal factors and environmental factors were considered . The relationship between job satisfaction and productivity was also described. The next chapter gives analysis and interpretation of the survey data. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION INTRODUCTION In this chapter the analysis of the collected data is shown. Analysis of data is made possible through Frequency Tables, Bar Charts, Pie-diagram, and Chi-Square test. Information is interpreted in percentage forms. Scoring method is also used to find the score of various attributes. Mean of various attributes are also shown. In scoring method score is given to the options for example. Score given to Strongly agree, agree, no opinion, disagree, strongly disagree is +2, +1,0, -1, -2 respectively. Mean: mean is the most common measure of central tendency and can be defined as the value of various given items in a series by the total number of items. Mean = (fx / (f TEST OF HYPOTHESIS The test of hypothesis is a process of testing significance regarding the parameter of the population on the basis of the sample. Chi-Square test is used to test the significance of the parameters of the population. Formula for Calculating X2 : [pic] Where O = Observed Frequency, E = Expected Frequency, Degree of Freedom = (C-1) (R-1) Table: 4. 1 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES |SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Standard of living |0. 6 | |2 |Promotion policy |-0. 4 | |3 |Job security |0. 64 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the score of standard of living is 0. 6 and the score of promotion policy is -0. 54 while job security got 0. 64. Figure 4. 1 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can see that the graph of promotion policy came to the negative side. Majority of the employees are not satisfied with the promotion policy. They have the opinion that the present job has improved their standard of living and they think that th eir job is secure. Table 4. 2 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Appreciation |-0. 38 | |2 |Suggestion |0. 08 | |3 |Salary |-0. 3 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the score of appreciation from superiors is -0. 38. The score of salary is -0. 3 Figure 4. 2 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can see that they are not getting appreciation from the superiors. The superiors are not inviting suggestions from the employees. The salary given to them is not adequate. Table 4. 3 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES |SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Better job prospect |-0. 6 | |2 |Job change |-0. 02 | |3 |Skill |-0. 32 | |4 |Time spent with family |0. 5 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the score of desire to change the present job is -0. 02. Utilization of skill got a score of -0. 32 while the time spent with family got 0. 5. Figure 4. 3 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can analyse that majority think that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a better job prospect as per their qualification. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to change the present job. Majority are having the opinion that their skills are not properly utilized. They are getting enough time with their family. Table 4. 4 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES |SI NO |ATTRIBUTES |SCORE | |1 |Trade union activities |0. | |2 |Welfare measures |0 | |3 |Working condition |0. 44 | |4 |Relationship with co-workers |0. 82 | *Source: survey data From the table we can find that the activities of trade union got 0. 4 as its score, while working condition scored 0. 44. the relationship with co-workers scored 0. 82. Figure 4. 4 SCORE OF VARIOUS ATTRIBUTES [pic] The above table is shown in graph. The employees are having a nice opinion about the trade union activities and working condition. A healthy relationship exists between workers and their superiors. The welfare measures provided by the company are not adequate. Table: 4. 5 GENDER OF RESPONDENTS |SI NO |SEX |FREQUENCY |PERCENTAGE | |1 |Male |41 |82 | |2 |Female |9 |18 | *Source: survey data From the table we can analyze that 82% of the employees are male and 18% is female Figure 4. 5 GENDER OF RESPONDENTS [pic] The same date is shown with the help of pie-diagram. From that we can see that majority of the respondents are male. Table: 4. 6 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION SI NO |EDUCATION |FREQUENCY |PERCENTAGE | |1 |SSLC |39 |78 | |2 |HSC |8 |16 | |3 |GRADUATION |3 |6 | |4 |PG |0 |0 | *Source: survey data The educational qualification of respondents is shown in the table. 78 % of the workers have education up to school level and 16% of them are having educational qualification HSC . 6% of the respondents are graduates. Figure 4. 6 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can interpret that majority are having their education up to school level. Tabl e: 4. 7 EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS |SI NO |EXPERIENCE |FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE | |1 |0 to 10 |8 |16 | |2 |10 to 20 |27 |54 | |3 |20 to 30 |10 |20 | |4 |30 to 40 |5 |10 | *Source: survey data Mean experience= 17. 4 The experience of respondents is shown in the table. 54% of them are having experience between 10 to 20 years. 16% comes under the range 0 to 10. Only 10 of them have experience above 30 years. Figure 4. 7 EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS [pic] The above table is shown in graph. From that we can see that majority are having experience between 10 to 20 years. Table: 4. 8 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS SI NO |AGE |FREQUENCY |PERCENTAGE | |1 |21 Ã¢â¬â 30 |12 |24 | |2 |31- 40 |32 |64 | |3 |41 to 50 |4 |8 | |4 |above 50 |2 |4 | *Source: survey data Mean age =36 From the table we can see that 64%of the respondents come under the age group 31 to 40 Figure 4. 8 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS [pic] The same data is shown in the graph. Table: 4. 9 MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS SI NO |MARITAL ST ATUS |FREQUENCY | | | | | | | | | | |PERCENTAGE | |1 |Married |35 |70 | |2 |Single |15 |30 | *Source: survey data The marital status of the employees is shown in the table. We can see that 70%of the employees are married. Figure 4. 9: MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS [pic] The same data is shown with the help of graph. Chi- square is a non parametric test that has assumed great importance in statistical analysis and statistical inferences because it can be used without making assumptions about parameters, as it is a distribution free test. Chi-square is a measure which evaluates the extent to which a set of the observed frequency of a sample deviates from the corresponding set of the expected frequency of the sample. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPERIENCE AND WAGES H0=There exist no significant relationship between experience and wages H1= There exist significant relationship between experience and wages | |Wages | |Experience |Agree |Disagree |Total | |0 to 20 |12 |23 |35 | |20 to 40 |7 |8 |15 | |Total |19 |31 |50 | O |E |O-E |(O-E)2 |(O-E)2/E | |12 |13. 3 |-1. 3 |1. 69 |. 1271 | |23 |21. 7 |1. 3 |1. 69 |. 0779 | |7 |5. 7 |1. 3 |1. 69 |. 2965 | |8 |9. 3 |-1. 3 |1. 69 |. 1812 | |Total |. 6827 | Calculated Value of X2=. 6827 Degree of freedom = 1 Table value at 5% level of significance =3. 841 As the calculated value is less than the table value the null hypothesis is accepted. The test of hypothesis reveals that there is no significant relationship between experience and wages. Those with more experience are not paid higher. Conclusion Analysis of collected data is shown in this chapter. Analysis of data is done by Frequency Tables, Bar Charts, Pie-diagram, and Chi-Square test. Information is interpreted in percentage forms Findings and recommendations are given in the following chapter. FINDINGS ? Majority of the employees are not satisfied with the promotion policy. The present job has improved their standard of living to some extend. ? Majority have the opinion that their job is secure. ? The employees are not getting adequate salary and the appreciation from their superiors is not satisfactory. ? Majority have the opinion that their skills are not fully utilized. ? The employees have a nice opinion about trade union activities and working condition. ? A healthy and relationship exists between workers and their superiors. The welfare measures provided by the company are not adequate. ? Majority of the respondents at WIP were male. ? Majority of the workers have education up to school level. ? Main experience of the workers at WIP is 17 years. Most of the workers fall in the age group of 31-40 mean age is 36 years. ? The test of hypothesis reveals that there is no significant relationship between experience and wages. Those with more experience are not paid higher. RECOMMENDATIONS ? It is advisable that the company should pay sufficient attention in providing monetary benefits to the employees ? The Management should take some initiative to enhance the welfare measures ? The employers should duly recognize and appreciate the efforts taken by the employees. It will give motivation to the employees ? It was found that the more experienced workers are not paid higher and thus resul ting in employee dissatisfaction. It is advisable that the company should take some initiative to implement new wage system in which experience gets more importance. ? Timely promotions would greatly help the workers as they feel recognized. ? Valuable suggestions made by the workers should given due consideration. SUMMARY The findings generated by the analysis of data resulted in the following conclusions. This study finds that personal factors like experience, time spend with the family affect the level of job satisfaction. Further analyses of data revealed that organisational factors like wages, reward, job security; role of job in increasing the standard of living affects the level of satisfaction. This study shows significant relationship between wages and standard of living Additionally this study reveals that managerial factors like ability, suggestions for improvement, relationship with superiors and co-workers contributes to the level of satisfaction. This study also indicates that working condition, role of trade union, welfare measures affects the level of satisfaction. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Referred 1. VSP RAO, HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, EXCELL BOOKS, NEW DELHI, 2000. 2. MAMORIA C. B. ; GANKAR S. V. Ã¢â¬ËPERSONNEL MANAGEMENT TEXT AND CASES. HIMALAYA PUBLISHING HOUSE, MUMBAI 2004. 3. BISWAJET PATTNAYAK, HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EXCELL BOOKS, NEW DELHI, 2000 4. KOTHARI C. R. RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES, WISHWA PRAKASHAN PUBLICATION, NEW DELHI, 1999. Websites www. questionpro. com www. wipltd. com. INTERVIEW SCHEDULE A Study on Job Satisfaction of Employees Conducted at Western India Plywoods, Valapattanam 1. My job is secure Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 2. I get comparatively better salary Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 3. I usually get appreciation from superior officers Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 4. They encourage me to offer suggestions for improvement of my establishment Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 5. My job improved my standard of living Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 6. I had a better job prospect as per my qualification. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 7. I like to change my present job Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 8. I am satisfied with the relationship with my superiors and co-workers. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 9. My skills are completely utilized Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 10. I am satisfied with the trade union activities. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 1. Company provides number of welfare measures. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 12. I have a convenient working condition. Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 13. Your opinion about present promotion policy Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 14. I get enough t ime to look after my family Strongly agree(Agree(Disagree( Strongly disagree(No opinion( 15. Name: 16. Sex: 17. Age:21-30(31-40(41-50(Above 50( 18. Educational qualification SSLC(HSC(Graduation(PG( 19. Experience 0-10(10-20(20-30(30-40( 20. Marital Status Married(Single( Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â C B A 21 Ã¢â¬â 30 How to cite A Study on Job Satisfaction of Employee, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
The Engineer Discourse Community : A Journal Article Essay To open this essay I have to start with saying that I will not be analyzing a manuscript, but a journal article instead, which the reason for will be explained later. Now, to define a journal article in a simple and modern definition, we can say it is a professionally published article that deals with a specialized subject. More specifically, in this case our genre is an engineering journal article. Contents within will range from current research results, charts and graphs of data, even current standings and analysis on subjects. A journal article is ultimately intended for engineers who have a research interest in a field, with at least some prior knowledge. The level of which its usefulness arises to is based on background knowledge on the topic. We will write a custom essay on The Engineer Discourse Community : A Journal Article specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The engineer discourse community who will pick up this genre will most likely be familiar, to a degree, with the content, or at least have prior knowledge of engineering concepts. Those engineers who want to help or further their own research will turn to these articles; they can then base where to begin once having been briefed by its content. These engineering journal articles allow for the progression of engineering, making them the most important genre encountered in the field. Engineers will want to carefully read the information presented, perhaps even a couple times through to fully grasp what they read. In the end spending ample time to fully explore the article. This shows that the genre itself is meant forÃ¢â¬ ¦
Thursday, March 19, 2020
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Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Dealing with issues of Death and Grief. Dealing with issues of Death and GriefAbstract Diagnosis of a terminal illness in one of the family members can prove to be a very traumatic experience and eventually call for care to be given to the patient. This can be done either by the family members or caregivers at home, or by nurses in the hospital wards and hospices. It can be concluded that nurses and caregivers play significant role in the dispensation of palliative care to terminally ill patients as this is their primary role as compared with family members and relatives who may have to juggle between more than one activity and responsibility. Grief usually clouds a family member when they are given the news that one of their members has been diagnosed with a terminal illness, and thus they have a given time to live. Grief is defined as the emotional or affective process of reacting to the loss of a loved one through death. The focus is on the internal psychology of the individual. Common grief reactions include components such as numbness and disbelief, anxiety sympto ms of depression that accompany mourning and recovery at the end of everything. Reactions can be seen as abnormal, resulting from trauma, pathologic and complicated. A sudden and unexpected death of a loved one results to a more difficult grief as opposed to a death that was expected for instance a person who has been sick for a very long time (Kayiwa and Mathews, 2005). Matters are worsened to know that the patient will undergo pain and suffering during their last times on earth and there is nothing that can be done about it but to try and reduce the pain by giving palliative care. Palliative care can be given by family members at home or the patient can be admitted into a hospice and taken care of by nurses and professional caregivers. Services of professional counselors are also employed to counsel and give assurance to the patients and family members alike. This is important as it helps the affected parties to accept the situation that cannot be changed, but rather managed in a certain way. However, some families may choose to administer Euthanasia, that is mercy killing to the patient to help reduce the suffering, pain and misery that the patient is undergoing and also to eliminate the pain in the family members each time they look at the patient and there is nothing they can do but sympathize. However, with this option, there are legal repercussions and roadblocks that stand in the way and before the family get to administer it, a lot of court room visits will have been made. The manner in which a person handles their losses whether or not they seem signif icant has a great psychological effect, which in turn affects how they lead their lives there after. In the event that one is stuck into the loss or they ignore the feelings then they may pay the price in the long run. Shouldering the weight are the nurses and other medical caregivers who have to inform patients and their families of the impending death or even the death of their loved ones. There are need for skills and capability to perform this critical duty with significant success. Introduction The issue of grief and general reaction of people to an impending death of close member of their families has not been the target of much research in the clinical disciplines. Much of the focus has been on the tangible and measurable aspects of the field. This neglect has been in the backdrop of families as well as patients who are uninformed of ways of coping with the unfamiliar situation. A case in point is the patients who are suffering from terminal illnesses like cancer. The bulk of the nurses and other medical practitioners working with patient who have a limited and specific time to live in hospices and other similar settings have their attention on their patients only and rarely on their significant others who are going through difficulty coping and adjusting to the soon to be loss of their family member and friend. Whereas, it is true that the terminally ill patients suffer the most, the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and concerns are not to be ignored. Even when any practitioner, for example a nurse, takes some minutes to explain the situation or just talk to the family and friends of the patient they are hardly patient enough to acknowledge their fears and concerns. Most of them engage in what Callas, R. (2005) calls Ã¢â¬Ëmasking of feeling.Ã¢â¬â¢ This he explains as the act of concluding and prescribing solutions to a troubled person, client or patient before getting to know how they really feel and what it is they need. This for example where a nurse or even a counselor tries to normalize and say things that will make a patient feel better without getting to know why they were feeling bad in the first place. Hughes, P.M (2001) states that a nurse should restrain from offering false comfort for example, saying that everyone has to die or equating the death to a blessing. Problem statement Loss and grief presents the affected people with overwhelming anxiety and sadness. It is even worse when the death of the person is predicted as is the case in hospices and ward with terminally ill patients. The family and friends go through desperation and helplessness as they watch the patient probably experiencing pain while there is nothing that can be done to help him or make the situation better. According to Wrenn, P. (2007) the anticipation of the death not just by the patient but also his or her family and friends is very distressing and can even lead to depression and other psychopathologies like anxiety and adjustment disorders. When going through grief, people can experience a series of physical problems including shortness of breath or even difficulty breathing, headaches, dizziness and nausea. Grief can also escalate causing medical conditions like heart diseases and diabetes. As a way of coping, most people may try to medicate the negative feelings by engaging in sedat ive alcohol substance abuse which may be detrimental to their health. Melnyk, B.M. (2005), states that encountering grief while working in the field of medicine is almost unavoidable. It is an issue that most nurses and even doctors ignore only to be caught unawares when they have to explain to their patient or their families that they have limited time to live. It is even worse when they have to report to the family that the patient is dead. This issue becomes a problem where the medical practitioners are not well equipped or knowledgeable enough to take their terminally ill patients or the family through the process of grieving. According to Callas, R. (2005), most nurses and even psychologists fail when they try to get quick fixes for the concerns of the grieving persons or try to avoid the subject altogether. This could be due to the fact the persons have not dealt with their own personal grief and thus the issue evokes unpleasant memories. Not dealing with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own grie f and loss according to Wrenn, P. (2007) reduces their ability to help others deal with the same and often lead to burnouts and feelings of incompetency. Purpose statement In the light of the mentioned problems and concerns, it is of importance that medical practitioners, especially the help givers like the nurses, are equipped with skills that will enable them to take their clients through the process of grief successfully. Nurses should be recommended to go for regular trainings and refresher courses to ensure that they are thoroughly informed on matters pertaining to grief. It is also necessary that nurses develop an open mind and culture sensitivity because the patients come from different backgrounds with different ways of reacting to the death of their beloved ones. It is meant to help the families to get over their losses and to successfully go through the process of grief and thereafter lead healthy and meaningful lives. The target population in this project is the family and friends of the patients as well as the patients who know that they have a limited or even specified time to live and are therefore going through mourning and grief. The pr oject aims at ascertaining the competence of the caregivers, like nurses, with an attempt to explore how the said competency can be improved. The project will also explore the options and alternatives available to the patients and their relatives that they can utilize to cope with the distress of the mourning process. The main aim is to reduce anxiety, physical and other psychosocial illnesses resulting from grief and loss and eventually reduce the burden and cost of treating the otherwise avoidable illnesses. Question The question to be answered is whether the families of patients with terminal illnesses and those that are bereaved are taken with success through the process of mourning and grief and therefore report less anxiety, physical and other psychosocial illnesses. Among the family members and friends of patients who are diagnosed with terminal illnesses do the skills of the nurses, counselors and other caregivers help in coping with the distress arising from the loss and thus reduce the resultant physical, social and psychological problems? PICO Format: P- Family members and friends of the terminally ill patients; I- Skills and competency of the nurses and other caregivers; C- Options available to the families like joining support groups; O- Reduce the physical, social and psychological problems and the burden of treating them. Literature Review Nurses, counselors and caregivers play a vital role in supporting family members who take care of the terminally ill, infirm or disabled members of their family. The major examples of terminal illnesses that bring stress to the family include cancers, HIV/ AIDS, diabetes, accidents that lead to permanent disability among others. It is a given fact that the families of those with terminal illnesses like mental disorders are greatly affected by the condition of their loved ones. Families exist not only to provide practical help and personal care but also to give emotional support to their relative with a terminal illness. In this case, the affected patient is entirely dependent on the family members, and their well-being is directly related to the nature and quality of the care provided by the caregiver. It is at this point that the caregivers, nurses and also counselors chip in to give some form of support to the family members in this very heavy task. These responsibilities can bring significant levels of stress to the family members to an extent that their normal life is interrupted and replaced with taking care of the terminally ill members of the family. This requires a lot of their time, and of course their life will not just come to an end because they are caring for one of their loved ones. This exercise usually takes a toll on them till they resort to employing the services of nurses and or caregivers, depending on where the patient is being cared for. In the case that the patient is admitted in a hospital ward for the terminally ill or in a hospice, then the responsibility will be rested to the nurses to look after the patient and assist them to live a painless and comfortable life in their last days. As for those terminally ill patients who are based at home and being given home care, this responsibility lies with the family members and in some cases caregivers are employed to perform this. In some cases where the patient is entirely over dependent on the nurses and caregivers, and the workload is just too much, for instance when the patient requires constant attention and vigilance, it can end up affecting their overall quality of life including work, socializing and relationships. Spanning the last few decades, research carried out on the impact of care-giving has led to an improved understanding of this subject including the interventions that make the difference. It has now been shown that developing constructive working relationships with the nurses and caregivers, and considering their needs be they personal, physical, emotional among other basic needs is an essential part of service provision for people with terminal illnesses who require and receive care from their family members. The term Ã¢â¬ËFamily burdenÃ¢â¬â¢ has been adopted to bring out the objective and subjective difficulties experienced by family members of people with long-term terminal illnesses. Objective burden are associated with the practical problems experienced by family members such as the disruption of family relationships and responsibilities, constraints in social associations, leisure and work activities, financial difficulties, and also a negative impact on their physical health, including experiencing of burnouts. On the other hand, subjective burdens describes the psychological reactions which family members go through, for instance a feeling of loss, sadness, anxiety and embarrassment in social situations, the stress of coping with disturbing behaviors, and the frustration caused by the changing relationship status. Grief may also be involved. This may be grief for the loss of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s original personality, achievements and contributions, as well as the loss of family lifestyle. Unconscious hostility and anger may also develop in the process without the family membersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge. Professional counselors are trained to work with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s normal developmental conflicts, while other mental health professionals generally are trained to diagnose and treat pathology and work with dysfunctional behavior or chronic mental illness according to Nugent (1994). Furthermore, counselors help people with personal, family, social, educational, and career decisions. Duties are dependent upon the individuals being served and the settings in which they work such as school, career, employment, rehabilitation, and mental health. In the case of patients with terminal illnesses, these professional counselors mainly come in to help the patient cope with the newly diagnosed condition and assist them to adapt to their new health condition. However, according to research works carried out by Altekruse and Sexton (1995), and West, et al. (1988/1989), counselors and administrators reported that the main duty of the counselor of the terminally ill was to diagnose and treat. They advice the patients on the doÃ¢â¬â¢s and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts of their condition and also explain to them the beneficial lifestyles that they should embrace in order to have a good life, or what is left of it. Though in this case, the treatment will not result in patient recovery. They may also need counseling in order to come to terms with the new developments as their lives too will be changed completely. Counselors provide a leeway for the family members to embrace and accept the facts of the situation, and by doing so, they will contribute positively towards the care of the terminally ill family member. Theory Taking care of the terminally ill patients can be quite an uphill task, one that consumes both time and resources of the family. According to Wrenn, P. (2007) the anticipation of the death of a loved family member not just by the patient, but also his or her family and friends is very distressing and can even lead to depression and other psychopathologies like anxiety and adjustment disorders. On the other hand, work can be made much easier by the use of nurses and caregivers to look after the terminally ill. Some of the advantages of this approach to that of family members giving the care is that nurses and care givers are professionally trained for that task. They perform it to their level best and leave no room for relaxation. And since they have no blood relations to the patient, they do not develop a weak heart that sometimes family members do and consequently give up and lose hope at the situation. Nurses keep their calm at all times and are present on call round the clock. Sin ce this is their duty, and that they are paid to give palliative care to the terminally ill, they put in all effort since this is no ordinary occupation. Their highly trained skills and experience can enable them to take care if any arising situation and emergency. Their skills and training help them to diagnose, treat and advise accordingly, both the terminally ill patient and the rest of the family members too. However, these nurses and care givers experience challenges when executing their duties. They may get some form of stress while at work. Therefore, these issues should be addressed in order for them to be highly effective while carrying out their duties. Another aspect of the nurses and caregivers is that they should be adequately trained so that they are well prepared for the task ahead. If not, then they risk doing more damage to the terminally ill patient and their family members than help them during the difficult grieving period. Development of strong ties both with the patient and the rest of the family members is an important task done by the nurses and care givers since they interact most frequently with both parties. In this case, they act as channels for conveying messages and requirements mostly by the terminally ill patient. When things get too much for a family to handle, they resort to application of euthanasia (mercy-killing) or physician Ã¢â¬âaided suicide. Usually this is done after much deliberations and discussions by the family and the patient, and only used as a last resort in extreme cases. The issue of mercy-killing has implicated several categories of its practices, some may be deemed legal and others illegal, while still others are a subtle combination of any of those categories. In the case of the ambiguous practices of the Ã¢â¬Å"right to die,Ã¢â¬ legal consequences become indeterminate since the right of an individual to privacy puts little access for state intervention. The issue on Ã¢â¬Å"right to dieÃ¢â¬ has been the subject of strong exchanges of responses between lobby groups from both sides of the ideological benchmark. The pro-life group fiercely raises its battle against any legal means of terminating a life, however hopeless it seems. On the other hand, those that suppor t the Ã¢â¬Å"right to die,Ã¢â¬ of which conception is Ã¢â¬Å"dying with dignity,Ã¢â¬ upholds a patient's right to a humane and controlled end their life (Moreno, 1995). Mercy-killing is commonly associated with practices of physician-assisted suicide. But this perception is just part of a larger picture. The difference between the two is the means with which both are carried out (Neeley, 1995). In most countries, practices of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide have been deemed illegal. However, in some countries like Netherlands, Belgium, and some countries in East Asia, these practices are acceptable (Moreno, 1995). Proposed Solution Social support is a very complex aspect when it comes to handling grief. It consists of a variety of components in itself. Social networks, supportive environment are some of the components. Lack of social support can lead to negative mourning outcomes. It is both a health risk factor and a bereavement risk factor (Kayiwa and Mathews, 2005). According to Kayiwa and Mathews (2005), normal grief needs intervention. It gives rise to emotional reactions that include shock, disbelief and denial that occurs after death. A spectrum of interventions that cover prevention and treatment to long term maintenance care should be provided. Preventive measures should target all persons associated with the death, persons with known risk factors and people who experience symptoms for distress (Kayiwa and Mathews, 2005). Formal treatment should be provided for those people experiencing pathological grief complications. The time limited approach may also be used as a solution. It lasts for nine to eighteen months and covers four to ninety minutes per session. It identifies families that face risk of poor outcomes. It focuses on improving communication, and conflict resolution. It puts effort to strengthen family solidarity (Santrock, 2007). Maintenance care as a form of support is recommended for people experiencing chronic grief reactions. Psychosocial treatment may be offered for complicated grief through diagnostic criterion. This involves exposure that is followed by cognitive restructure then exposure therapy and lastly supportive counseling (Santrock, 2007). There is an extensive literature that defines and measures dependent and independent variable. The implementation should take effect when the death of a loved one is reported. Implementation Plan The implementation process starts from observing whether the members of the bereaved family have been affected by grief. People are different and their response to bad news or disaster differs. Some people respond quickly and often at the very time they learn of the death of a loved one. Others respond slowly to the effect of the news. The grief may affect the latter group after the burial and even several days after that. The impact of the grief is another factor that requires keen observation. Some people are greatly impacted by the news that they develop grief at that moment in time. These kinds of people can pass out for some time. Other people take the impacts and go through them with ease. This is especially for people who may have lost a couple of other people before including some of their loved ones in their lives. They may seem not to be disturbed by the loss of a loved one but actually it has affected them (Santrock, 2007). Observation helps to identify the members of the family that may have been adversely affected by the death. It also helps identify the way the death has impacted them. This may help in identifying how much grief one is facing and to what extent (Chesser, 2010). After observation, one should identify the appropriate support intervention measures. Different support intervention measures are given depending on the impact of the death of a loved one. There are members of the family who will suffer mild grief and there are those who will suffer complex and complicated pathological grief. Those who suffer mild grief are supposed to be given support measures that are not intense as those with complex and pathological grief. Identification will entail choosing the right support intervention and the resources that will come handy with the support (Chesser, 2010). According to Chesser, after identification, implementation is done. Implementation involves the actual offering of the support. When implementing the support measures each individual must be taken as an entity. There are those who may require company, encouragement and assurance that life will go on even after the losing a loved one. These are the people who may have common grief. People who require intensive support measures are those that have complicated pathological and complex grief (Chesser, 2010). The news of the death of a loved one may have interfered with the normal functioning of their brain thus interfering with their emotions and socialization with other people. They may need serious counseling, therapy and medication. These people may need to be taken to hospital for a certain period of time or just remain at home and be treated from there. The resources that will be needed when implementing the help strategy are several. Money may be needed to buy materials to be used in the entire process and to cater for transportation purposes if ne ed for traveling to the hospital arises. The counselor, therapist, social worker and medics may be required to offer their help especially for people who have suffered complex and pathological grief. When the implementation process is done evaluation has to take place. Evaluation is very important in the process of offering support to people who are suffering with grief. Evaluation is important as it shows the relevance and progress of the support intervention. There are two forms of intervention namely, formative and summative. Formative evaluation is done at the beginning, in and during the support intervention process. The importance of formative evaluation is that it identifies the weakness of the patient at the beginning of the support process. It also tells whether the support intervention measures are creating a change or not. In the event that the support does not bring about any change, formative evaluation helps in modifying or changing the intervention for better results (Chesser, 2010). Summative evaluation is done at the end of the entire process to ascertain whether the support process has yielded any results. It helps to indicate whether the support has helped the individual or has done nothing. There are several resources that can b e used in the evaluation process. Questionnaires are used to interview the members the affected personÃ¢â¬â¢s family about the changes that have occurred. Mental screening tools can be used to screen the mind of an individual who may have gone mad when he was grieved. This may be done to see if the person is responding to the support intervention (Chesser, 2010). The legal concepts underlying the issue on mercy-killing include an intricate variety of concepts, some are distinct and some ambiguous. Some instances include the hastening patientÃ¢â¬â¢s death by withdrawal of medical intervention (passive euthanasia), providing them with the means to commit suicide (assisted suicide), intentional killing of a patient (active euthanasia), or accelerating the process of death by providing the patient with comfort care (palliative care). An ambiguous category of Ã¢â¬Å"right to dieÃ¢â¬ is the physician-assisted suicide, which could be construed to be an overlap of assisted suicide and active euthanasia in which the participation of a licensed physician is active (Neeley, 1995). In any case, legal consequences following the exercise of mercy-killing may vary drastically. Some states have no established rules with regards to it; some may violate statutes; some may lead to confinement; some are legal; and some are constitutional. But the issue on t he legality or morality of these practices involves also the level of medical situation of a patient, whether a terminal illness is the basis of the decision or another level of pain, deteriorating quality of living, or a mental suffering. Some proponents find little distinction amongst these exercises of the Ã¢â¬Å"right to dieÃ¢â¬ (Moreno, 1995). But it often results in abuses of discretion and goes beyond societal and moral concerns, hence a need to establish a distinction amongst them in every situation where relevant decisions are crucial. Dissemination Plan Either a Subjective Intent Test or Objective test was applied. Under the subjective intent test, a patient's desire is discerned through any of the following; written documents which may include, but not limited to, Living Will, advance medical directives, or power of attorney; an oral statement; records of the patient's past behavioral patterns; and discernment of the patient's choice had he/she been aware of his/her prognosis. Many courts had ruled to give way to the wish of a patient to stop having the indefinite use of life-sustaining medical technology (Wennberg, 1989). In the Objective Test Objective test the patient's condition may justify the withdrawal of medical care. However, the possibility that an abuse and oppression may transcribe should compel the courts to give meticulous them. Some lower courts, therefore, have resorted to discerning what medical treatment a patient may choose had they been aware of their prognosis based upon the details of the present condition. Un der objective test are two standards to be used when a patient had not left a clear indication as to his/her preferences. One is the Ã¢â¬Å"limited objective test,Ã¢â¬ under which the life-sustaining equipment may be withdrawn when trustworthy evidence shows that the patient would really have opted to refuse medical treatment (Moreno, 1995). The other one is the Ã¢â¬Å"purely objective test,Ã¢â¬ in which the medical treatment causes the recurrence of severe pain to the extent that continued administering of the life-sustaining treatment could be inhumane. Since objective test is invoked only when there is no indication of any subjective intent, it is does not overly cause burden upon the right of the patient to refuse treatment. It remains in question whether objective intent test answers attentively to the desires of the patient or instead bypasses the need for an expressed desire of the patient, which applies to the desires of the guardians, physician, or the court. Some implications in the recent cases having to do with Ã¢â¬Å"right to dieÃ¢â¬ suggest that the state may provide strict ruling that only Ã¢â¬Å"competentÃ¢â¬ expressions of the desire to refuse medical treatment may given the credit. This provision prohibits a minor or a mentally incompetent patient to exercise his/her right to refuse medical treatment. But in some states, variations in the objective test could give permission to such individuals to exercise their right to refuse medical treatment. In cases where incompetent patients explicitly express their desire to withhold a treatment, denial of the right may be deemed a violation against the Equal Protection (Wennberg, 1989). Conclusion/ Summary The diagnosis of a family member with a terminal illness such as diabetes, Cancer and HIV/ AIDS can bring grief to the other family members including the patient. Worse still is when the other family members have to cope with the news that one of their loved one has departed. In such cases, the family members have to find ways of dealing eith the grief that has arisen from these occurrences. In the case of diagnosis with terminal illnesses, the patient and family members have to find ways of making the patient comfortable and a less painful remaining life on earth. And for this, they need all the support they can get. Support given to the grieving should be handled with great care and attention. People receive information differently and the information affects them in different ways. Therefore support services must be chosen carefully and ensured that they are relevant to the person who needs them. The implementation procedure must be carried out gradually letting the person regain their normalcy smoothly. Discussions over euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide have always raised disputes between those that oppose and support these two examples of how to exercise the Ã¢â¬Å"right to die.Ã¢â¬ A life full of unendurable pain may compel those whose loved ones suffer it to think thoroughly whether the patient should have the Ã¢â¬Å"right to die,Ã¢â¬ yet that question may remain unanswered. The doubt on the exercise of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide lies primarily on the fear that there might be some discrepancies in the decision-making of when and how it should be carried out. Some may ask as to the appropriate condition of the patient to give consent to Ã¢â¬Å"right to die.Ã¢â¬ Some may question the magnitude of pain an unresponsive patient feels to make it a basis to end his/her life through physician suicide. Perhaps, the best consideration is the accurate, if not approximate, determination of how much pain a patient feels. Despite all these, a suitable way has to be found of caring for the patient, a way that is within the reach of the family and that will be very helpful to both the patient and the family members alike. The family may therefore opt to choose from the above discussed options namely home care, hospice care, euthanasia or even physician-assisted suicide, whichever they may deem fit for their condition. References Altekruse, M. K. Sexton, T. L. (Eds.). (1995). Mental health counseling in the 90's: A research report for training and practice (1st ed.). Tampa: The National Commission for Mental Health Counseling. Callas, R. (2005) Dying and Grieving, Life Span and Perspectives. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. Chesser, B. (2010). Seven Steps for Handling Grief: New York, Sunstone press. D., Hosie, T. W., Mackey, J. A. (1988). The counselor's role in mental health: An evaluation. Counselor Education and Supervision, 27(3), 233-239. Hughes, P.M. (2001). Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care. New York: Ronald press. West, J. Kayiwa, K. Mathews, Z. (2005). Face to Face with Grief: New York, Lulu Publisher. Melnyk, B.M. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing healthcare: A guide to best practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Moreno, J. (1995) Arguing Euthanasia: The Controversy Over Mercy Killing, Assisted Suicide, And The "Right To Die". Touchstone. Neeley, G S (1995) The Right to Self Directed Death: Reconsidering an Ancient Proscription Catholic Law 35, 111. Santrock, J. (2007). A Tropical Approach to Life Span Development: New York, McGraw Hill Publisher. Strauss, S. E. (2005). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach. New York: Churchill Livingstone Wennberg, R. (1989) Terminal Choices: Euthanasia, Suicide, and the Right to Die. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 210. Wrenn, P. (2007). Coping with Loss and Grief. London: Routledge. Ã AppendixDefinition of Terms Euthanasia - involves the intentional killing of a patient suffering from a severe malady for the purpose of ending such. Also referred to as Mercy-Killing. Physician-assisted suicide - involves supplying the patient with any means to hasten their death without actually killing them. Research survey A survey will be carried out in respect of this research. The total sample will involve 300 participants with terminal illness. The data for the survey will be measured, recorded and analyzed in a representative sample, which will be selected out of total population of . One patient with terminal illness and one with curable disease will be administered a specific program and the same will be implemented to the rest of the sample population. Following the completion of this project, the groups from different scale of illness will be compared with other classes of another scale. When a patient is comatose or in any way incapable of making one's own decision with regards to medical care, the role of others on behalf of the physically and legally incompetent individual, may the second party be a family member or otherwise, adds complications to the exercise of the Ã¢â¬Å"right to die.Ã¢â¬ The courts have adopted different standards to address the problems of comprehending the desire of an unresponsive patient for a medical treatment.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Identification and Recommendation of Alternative Strategies for McDonalds - Research Paper Example The fast-food culture is fast expanding into the developing nations, as more and more people are attracted towards the taste, quick service, consistency and cheap prices. Out of the total restaurant revenues of the developed nations, the fast food outlets account for almost half. "It is no longer enough to just fill someone's stomach - you have to do it better and faster than others do. Product innovation, customer satisfaction, and differentiated promotions are of utmost importance - now more than ever" (Shekeb Naim, 2008) The industry has nearly matured in the developed countries but in countries like India, the fast food industry is growing at a rate of over 40% per annum. The growth of the IT and IT enables services in India were the bulk of urban youth are working with big pay packets and little time to cook are driving the growth. Growing concerns over the fat and salt content of some fast foods have led to severe criticism of eating fast food and have prompted the industry to offer an increasing range of "healthy" fast foods. A typical fast food outlet carries high overheads in terms of rents, rates, labor costs and bank interest charges. The market is labor intensive and involves considerable start-up and ongoing capital investment. The fast-food industry has a lot to thank McDonald's for. Especially the supply chain management of this company is highly regarded as one of the best in any industry and fast food companies try to emulate the McDonald way of operations.